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Pathologic basis of veterinary disease [6th Ed.]

ZACHARY, J.F. (Principal)

Elsevier

2016

1837 p.

9780323357975

eH-06-00-17C

PATHOLOGIE ; MEDECINE VETERINAIRE ; ANATOMOPATHOLOGIE ; ANIMAL DOMESTIQUE


I General Pathology
1 Mechanisms and Morphology of Cellular Injury, Adaptation, and Death
Key Readings Index
E-Glossary 1-1 Glossary of Abbreviations and Terms
Basic Terminology
The Normal Cell
Components of Normal Cells and Their Vulnerabilities
Cell Membranes (Cytocavitary System)
Second Messenger Systems.
Cytosol versus Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Nucleolus.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes.
Golgi Complex
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Mitochondria
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Vaults
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes
The Cytoskeleton: Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments, and Microtubules
Cellular Inclusions
Intercellular Junctions and the Extracellular Matrix
Causes of Cell Injury
Oxygen Deficiency
Physical Agents
Infectious Microbes
Nutritional Imbalances
Genetic Derangement
Workload Imbalance
Chemicals, Drugs, and Toxins
Immunologic Dysfunction
Aging
Reversible Cell Injury
Acute Cell Swelling
Mechanisms of Acute Cell Swelling
Acute Cell Swelling Resulting from Hypoxic Injury
Acute Cell Swelling Resulting from Specific Types of Cell Membrane Injury
Carbon Tetrachloride and Cell Membrane Injury
Molecules of the Immune System and Cell Membrane Injury.
Morphologic Changes: Their Detection and Evaluation
Morphology of Acute Cell Swelling
Gross Appearance.
Microscopic Appearance.
Ultrastructural Appearance.
Significance and Fate of Acute Cell Swelling
Irreversible Cell Injury and Cell Death
Cell Death
Cell Death by Oncosis (Oncotic Necrosis)
Cell Membrane Injury Leading to Cell Death.
Free Radical Injury.
Morphologic Appearance of Necrotic Cells and Tissues (Oncotic Necrosis).
Gross Appearance of Necrotic Tissue.
Histologic Changes in Necrosis (Oncotic Necrosis).
Ultrastructure of Necrotic Cells (Oncotic Necrosis).
Types of Oncotic Necrosis.
Coagulative Necrosis.
Caseous Necrosis.
Liquefactive Necrosis.
Gangrenous Necrosis.
Necrosis of Epithelium.
Necrosis of Adipose Tissue (Fat Necrosis).
Sequelae to Oncotic Necrosis.
Morphologic Appearance of Postmortem Changes
Cell Death by Apoptosis
Triggers of Apoptosis.
The Extrinsic (Death Receptor­Initiated) Pathway.
The Intrinsic (Mitochondrial) Pathway.
The Execution Phase of Apoptosis.
Morphologic Appearance of Apoptosis.
Chronic Cell Injury and Cell Adaptations
Cellular Survival during Sublethal Ischemia or Involution
Autophagy
Adaptations That Change Cell Size, Number, or Appearance
Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
Dysplasia
Intracellular Accumulations
Lipids
Glycogen
Proteins
Defects in Protein Folding.
Other Intracellular Inclusions
Autophagic Vacuoles.
Crystalline Protein Inclusions.
Viral Inclusion Bodies.
Lead Inclusions.
Extracellular Accumulations
Hyaline Substances
Amyloid.
Classification and Localization of Amyloidosis.
Other Extracellular Accumulations
Fibrinoid Change.
Collagen (Fibrosis).
Fatty Infiltration.
Gout
Pseudogout
Cholesterol.
Pathologic Calcification
Dystrophic Calcification
Metastatic Calcification
Heterotopic Ossification
Pigments
Exogenous Pigmented Substances
Carbon and Other Dusts.
Carotenoid Pigments.
Tetracycline.
Nonhematogenous Endogenous Pigments
Melanin.
Lipofuscin and Ceroid.
Hematogenous Pigments
Hemoglobin.
Toxic or Other Metabolic Disorders of Hemoglobin
Cyanide.
Carbon Monoxide.
Nitrite Poisoning.
Intravascular Hemolysis (Hemoglobinuria).
Hematin.
Acid Hematin (Formalin Pigment).
Parasitic Hematin.
Hemosiderin.
Hematoidin.
Bilirubin.
Porphyria.
Cell Cycle
Cellular Aging
Genetic Basis of Aging
Telomeres
Cellular Senescence
Structural and Biochemical Changes with Cellular Aging
Genetic Basis of Disease
Types of Diagnoses
Chromosome Structure and Function
Nuclear Chromosomes
Mitochondrial Chromosomes
Gene Structure and Function
Mechanisms of Genetic Disorders
Single-Gene Disorders
Single-Gene Disorders of Somatic Cells.
Single-Gene Disorders of Germ Cells.
Autosomal Dominant Disorders.
Autosomal Recessive Disorders.
X-Linked Disorders.
Single-Gene Disorders of Mitochondria.
Chromosomal Disorders.
Errors in Cell Division.
Numeric Alterations.
Structural Alterations.
Complex Multigenic Disorders
Types of Diagnoses
Summary
Suggested Readings
Suggested Readings
2 Vascular Disorders and Thrombosis
Key Readings Index
E-Glossary 2-1 Glossary of Abbreviations and Terms
Circulatory System
Microcirculation, Interstitium, and Cells
Fluid Distribution and Homeostasis
Abnormal Fluid Distribution
Imbalance between Intracellular and Interstitial Compartments
Imbalance between Intravascular and Interstitial Compartments (Edema)
Mechanisms of Edema Formation
Increased Microvascular Permeability
Increased Intravascular Hydrostatic Pressure
Decreased Intravascular Osmotic Pressure
Decreased Lymphatic Drainage
Morphologic Characteristics of Edema
Hemostasis
Hemostatic Process
Primary Hemostasis
Secondary Hemostasis
Thrombolysis and Fibrinolysis
Regulation of Hemostasis
Coagulation Inhibitors
Fibrinolytic Inhibitors
Hemostasis and Other Host Responses
Disorders of Hemostasis: Hemorrhage and Thrombosis
Hemorrhage
Thrombosis
Normal Blood Flow, Distribution, and Perfusion
Alterations in Blood Flow and Perfusion
Increased Blood Flow
Decreased Blood Flow
Decreased Tissue Perfusion
Shock
Cardiogenic Shock
Hypovolemic Shock
Blood Maldistribution
Stages and Progression of Shock
Clinical and Morphologic Features of Shock
Suggested Readings
Suggested Readings
3 Inflammation and Healing
Key Readings Index
E-Glossary 3-1 Glossary of Abbreviations and Terms
Evolution of the Current Understanding of Inflammation
Beneficial and Harmful Aspects of Inflammation
Acute Inflammation
Substances Inducing the Acute Inflammatory Response
Fluidic (Exudative) Phase of the Acute Inflammatory Response
Endothelial Cell Dynamics during the Acute Inflammatory Response
Formation of Endothelial Cell Gaps
Cellular Phase of the Acute Inflammatory Response
Leukocyte Adhesion Cascade
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiencies
Therapeutic Strategies to Modulate Leukocyte Infiltration
Additional Regulation of Inflammation
Effector Cells of the Acute Inflammatory Response
Vascular Endothelial Cells
Mast Cells and Basophils
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Natural Killer Cells and Natural Killer T Lymphocytes
Monocytes and Macrophages
Chemical Mediators of the Acute Inflammatory Response
Complement Cascade
Arachidonic Acid Metabolites
Prostaglandin Formation and Inhibition
Leukotriene Formation and Inhibition
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils) and Inhibition of Eicosanoid Activity
Platelet-Activating Factor
Cytokine Family
Overview in Inflammation and Induction of CD4 TH Subsets
Cytokine Receptors and Signaling
Inflammatory Proteins
Interferons.
High Mobility Group Box Protein 1.
Chemokines
Classification of Chemokines
Chemokine Receptors and Signaling
Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide
Receptors for Exogenous and Endogenous Inflammatory Stimuli and Toll-Like Receptors
Antimicrobial Peptides and Collectins
Acute Phase Proteins
Antiinflammatory Mediators
Summary of the Chemical Mediators of Acute Inflammation
Reparative Phase of the Acute Inflammatory Response
Outcomes of the Acute Inflammatory Response
Nomenclature of the Inflammatory Response (Morphologic Diagnoses)
Morphologic Classification of Exudates in Acute Inflammatory Lesions
Serous Inflammation
Catarrhal Inflammation
Fibrinous Inflammation
Suppurative Inflammation
Chronic Inflammation
Beneficial and Harmful Aspects of Chronic Inflammation
Progression of the Acute Inflammatory Response to Chronic Inflammation, Fibrosis, and Abscess Formation
Progression to Chronic/Granulomatous Inflammation
Healing by Fibrosis
Abscess Formation
Granulomatous Inflammation and Granuloma Formation
Nodular (Tuberculoid) Granulomas (TH1-Biased Granulomas)
Diffuse (Lepromatous) Granulomas (TH2-Biased Granulomas)
Sarcoids of Horses
Eosinophilic Granulomas
Other Chronic Inflammatory/ Granulomatous Conditions
Gross and Microscopic Lesions and Nomenclature of the Chronic Inflammatory Response
Cellular Mechanisms of Chronic Inflammatory Responses
Lymphocytes
?/? T Lymphocytes
?/? T Lymphocytes (CD4/CD8)
TH1, TH2, TH17, and T Reg Immunologic Responses
Monocytes/Macrophages
Epithelium
Mononuclear Cell Maturation and Trafficking in the Chronic Inflammatory Response
Formation of Epithelioid Macrophages and Multinucleate Giant Cells
Dendritic Cells
Dendritic Cell Trafficking.
B Lymphocytes
Plasma Cells
Eosinophils
Mast Cells
Natural Killer Cells
Fibroblasts
Endothelial Cells
Trafficking of Naïve and Activated T and B Lymphocytes
Homing of Naïve Lymphocytes via High Endothelial Venules
Adherence and Transendothelial Migration of Activated T Lymphocytes
Inflammation and the Sensation of Pain
The Effect of Inflammation on the Febrile Response and Other Activities
Unique Types of Inflammation
Septicemia and Endotoxic Shock
Septicemia.
Septic (Endotoxic) Shock.
Wound Healing and Angiogenesis
First and Second Intention Healing
First Intention Healing
Second Intention Healing
Impaired Wound Healing
Expression of Genes Responsible for Wound Repair
Degradation of Cells and Tissue Components in Wounds
Degradation of the Extracellular Matrix in Wounds
Resynthesis of the Extracellular Matrix with Wound Healing
Synthesis of Collagen and Matrix Proteins
Collagen Production by Fibroblasts
Synthesis of Proteoglycans
Fibroblasts and the Mechanistic Basis of Fibrosis
Morphology of Granulation Tissue and Fibrous Connective Tissue
Granulation Tissue
Hypertrophic Scars.
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Wound Contraction
The Scirrhous Reaction
Myofibroblasts.
Angiogenesis in Wound Repair
Initiation of Endothelial Cell Proliferation
Endothelial Cell Growth Factors.
Endothelial Cell Migration Is Mediated by Integrins.
Vascular Remodeling.
Regulators/Inhibitors of Endothelial Cell Growth.
Epithelialization in Wound Repair
Intact Basement Membranes Enhance Reepithelialization
Initiation of Cell Proliferation in Epithelia
Differentiation of Epithelia
Metaplasia in Wound Repair
Suggested Readings
Suggested Readings
Inflammation
Healing
4 Mechanisms of Microbial Infections
Key Readings Index
E-Glossary 4-1 Glossary of Abbreviations and Terms
Chronologic Sequence of Steps in Microbial Diseases
Portals of Entry
Alimentary System (Ingestion)
Respiratory System (Inhalation)
Urogenital System (Ascending Infection)
Skin (Direct Contact and Cutaneous Penetration)
Ear and Eye (Direct Contact and Cutaneous Penetration)
Target Cells and Substances
Epithelial Cells as Microbial Targets
Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues as Microbial Targets
Biologic Substances as Microbial Targets
Pathways of Spread
Mechanisms Used to Colonize Mucosae (or Biologic Substances) at Portals of Entry
Colonize Mucus (Goblet Cells)
Colonize Cilia (or Microvilli) of Mucosal Epithelial Cells
Colonize the Cell (Endocytosis)
Mechanisms Used to Cross Mucosae at Portals of Entry
M Cell Entry
Leukocyte Trojan Horse Entry
Dendritic Cell Entry
Transcytosis Entry
Direct Entry (Motility)
Nerve Ending Entry
Mechanisms of Adhesion, Colonization, Invasion, and Replication
Cell Polarity
Transcytosis and Endocytosis/Exocytosis
Systemic Spread
Defense Mechanisms
Barrier Systems
Structural (Physical) Barriers
Functional (Biologic) Barriers
Mucus Layer.
Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses
Monocyte-Macrophage System
Dendritic Cells
Phagosome-Lysosome Fusion
Genetic Resistance of Animals to Infectious Diseases
Disorders of Barrier Systems
Disorders of the Innate Immune Response
Disorders of the Adaptive Immune Response
Bacterial Diseases
Pathogenicity
Virulence Factors
Initial Encounters at Portals of Entry
Adhesion, Colonization, Toxigenesis, and Invasiveness
Toxigenesis (Toxins)
Exotoxins and Lipoteichoic Acid.
Endotoxins.
A-B Toxin.
Other Virulence Factors
Secretion Systems.
Siderophores.
Biofilms/Intracellular Bacterial Communities.
Capsules.
Role of Bacterial Genes in Susceptibility and/or Resistance to Disease
Virulence Factors
Antibiotic Resistance
Bacterial Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance.
Bacterial Gene Transfer
Vertical Gene Transfer.
Horizontal Gene Transfer.
Mechanisms of Genomic Change
Bacterial Diseases of Organ Systems
Alimentary System and the Peritoneum, Omentum, Mesentery, and Peritoneal Cavity
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Enteric Colibacillosis (Escherichia coli).
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.
Enterotoxemic and Septicemic Colibacillosis.
Salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.).
Enterotoxemia (Clostridium perfringens).
Alimentary Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis).
Disorders of Horses
Rhodococcal Enteritis (Rhodococcus equi).
Tyzzer's Disease (Clostridium piliforme [Bacillus piliformis]).
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Johne's Disease (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis [MAP]).
Bovine Intestinal Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis).
Wooden Tongue (Actinobacillus lignieresii).
Alimentary Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis).
Disorders of Pigs
Porcine Proliferative Enteritis/Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome (Lawsonia intracellularis).
Swine Dysentery (Brachyspira hyodysenteriae).
Porcine Polyserositis (Haemophilus suis/parasuis, Actinobacillus suis, Streptococcus suis, or Escherichia coli).
Hepatobiliary System and Exocrine Pancreas
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Hepatic Leptospirosis (Leptospira spp.).
Disorders of Horses
Tyzzer's Disease (Clostridium piliforme [Bacillus piliformis]).
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Bacillary Hemoglobinuria (Clostridium haemolyticum).
Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis (Clostridium novyi).
Disorders of Pigs
Porcine Polyserositis (Haemophilus suis/parasuis, Actinobacillus suis, Streptococcus suis, or Escherichia coli).
Respiratory System, Mediastinum, and Pleurae
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Strep Zoo (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus).
Respiratory Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis).
Disorders of Horses
Rhodococcal Pneumonia (Rhodococcus equi).
Strep Zoo (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus).
Strangles (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi).
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.
Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis/Mannheimiosis (Mannheimia [Pasteurella] haemolytica).
Pulmonary Histophilosis (Histophilus somni).
Bovine Enzootic Pneumonia (Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida serogroup A).
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides Small Colony).
Bovine Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis).
Disorders of Pigs
Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex.
Porcine Pleuropneumonia (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae).
Atrophic Rhinitis (Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida).
Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae).
Porcine Polyserositis (Haemophilus suis/parasuis, Actinobacillus suis, Streptococcus suis, or Escherichia coli).
Disorders of Dogs
Acute Tracheobronchitis (Bordetella bronchiseptica).
Cardiovascular System and Lymphatic Vessels
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Embolic Vasculopathy/Vasculitis (Actinobacillus equuli, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Fusobacterium necrophorum).
Vascular Leptospirosis (Leptospira spp.).
Septicemic Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis).
Disorders of Horses
Glanders (Burkholderia mallei; Farcy, Malleus, Droes).
Disorders of Pigs
Edema Disease (Escherichia coli).
Urinary System
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Necrohemorrhagic Urocystitis (Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium renale, Pseudomonas spp., Proteus vulgaris, or Klebsiella pneumoniae).
Renal Leptospirosis (Leptospira spp.).
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Contagious Bovine Pyelonephritis (Corynebacterium renale, Trueperella pyogenes [formerly Arcanobacterium pyogenes], or Escherichia coli).
Pulpy Kidney (Overeating) Disease (Clostridium perfringens).
Bone Marrow, Blood Cells, and Lymphatic System
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Brucellosis (Brucella spp.).
Disorders of Horses
Strangles (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi).
Rhodococcal Mesenteric Lymphadenitis (Rhodococcus equi).
Caseous Lymphadenitis (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis).
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Caseous Lymphadenitis (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis).
Brucellosis (Brucella spp.).
Disorders of Pigs
Rhodococcal Mesenteric Lymphadenitis (Rhodococcus equi).
Brucellosis (Brucella spp.).
Disorders of Dogs
Brucellosis (Brucella spp.).
Nervous System
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Botulism and Tetanus (Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani).
Meningitis (Escherichia coli and Other Bacterial Species).
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes).
Thrombotic Meningoencephalitis (Histophilus somni).
Focal Symmetric Encephalomalacia (Clostridium perfringens).
Mannheimia Meningoencephalitis (Mannheimia haemolytica A1).
Disorders of Pigs
Edema Disease (Escherichia coli).
Muscle
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei).
Malignant Edema (Clostridium septicum).
Big Head and Black Disease (Clostridium novyi).
Bone, Joints, Tendons, and Ligaments
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Lumpy Jaw (Actinomyces bovis).
Integumentary System
Disorders of Pigs
Greasy Pig Disease (Staphylococcus hyicus).
Diamond Skin Disease (Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae).
Disorders of Dogs
Canine Pyoderma (Staphylococcus intermedius).
Female Reproductive System and Mammary Gland
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Brucellosis (Brucella spp.).
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Bovine Mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli).
Male Reproductive System
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Brucellosis (Brucella spp.).
Viral Diseases
Target Cells
Viral Pathogenicity and Replication Cycle
Virulence Factors
Mechanisms of Genomic Change
Defense Mechanisms
Viral Diseases of Organ Systems
Alimentary System and the Peritoneum, Omentum, Mesentery, and Peritoneal Cavity
Disorders of Domestic Animals
Rotavirus Enteritis (Rotavirus, Nonenveloped RNA Virus).
Vesicular Stomatitis (Vesiculovirus, Enveloped RNA Virus).
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Bovine Viral Diarrhea­Mucosal Disease (BVD Virus, Pestivirus, Enveloped RNA Virus).
Rinderpest (Cattle Plague, Morbillivirus, Enveloped RNA Virus).
Contagious Ecthyma (Orf, Sore Mouth, Pustular Dermatitis: Parapoxvirus; Enveloped DNA Virus).
Bovine Papular Stomatitis (Parapoxvirus, Enveloped DNA Virus).
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Aphthovirus, Nonenveloped RNA Virus).
Disorders of Pigs
Transmissible Gastroenteritis (Coronavirus, Enveloped RNA Virus).
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (Coronavirus, Enveloped RNA Virus).
Swine Vesicular Disease (Enterovirus, Nonenveloped RNA Virus).
Vesicular Exanthema of Pigs (Calicivirus, Nonenveloped RNA Virus).
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Aphthovirus, Nonenveloped RNA Virus).
Disorders of Dogs
Parvovirus Enteritis (Parvovirus, Nonenveloped DNA Virus).
Canine Enteric Coronavirus (Canine Coronavirus, Enveloped RNA Virus).
Canine Distemper (Morbillivirus, Enveloped RNA Virus).
Disorders of Cats
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus, Nonenveloped RNA Virus).
Parvovirus Enteritis (Parvovirus, Nonenveloped DNA Virus).
Hepatobiliary System and Exocrine Pancreas
Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
Wesselsbron's Disease (Flavivirus, Enveloped RNA Virus).
Rift

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N° édition : 6th edition

Lieu d'édition : St Louis (USA) ; AMSTERDAM (NLD)

Localisation : Dawsonera (plateforme)



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